Pengertian dan Fungsi Bank: Tujuan dan Ragam Jenis Bank

1.2K Bank is a financial intermediary institution that is generally established with the authority to accept deposits, lend money, and issue promissory notes or banknotes.

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Bank Pengertian, Fungsi, Tujuan, dan Jenis-jenis Bank

Bank is a financial intermediary institution that is generally established with the authority to accept deposits, lend money, and issue promissory notes or banknotes. The word “bank” comes from the Italian word “banca,” which means a place for exchanging money.

According to the law, banking is a business entity that collects funds from the public in the form of deposits and channels them to the public in the form of loans or other forms in order to improve the standard of living of the general population.

According to Dr. B.N. Ajuha, the definition of a bank is a place to channel capital from those who cannot use it profitably to those who can make it more productive for the benefit of society. According to other experts, the definition of a bank is as follows:

  1. Pierson
  2. According to Pierson, an economist from the Netherlands, a bank is an institution that accepts credit. Banks receive deposits from the public in the form of current accounts, fixed deposits, and savings accounts.

    The deposits from the public are then managed by channeling them into investments and loans to private enterprises or the government. From these activities, banks earn profits in the form of dividends or interest income that can be used to pay operational costs and expand the business.

  3. RG. Howtery
  4. In his book “Currency on Credit,” RG. Howtery states that money in the hands of the public functions as a medium of exchange and a measure of value, also known as a standard of value.

    The public obtains money as a medium of exchange based on credit obtained from intermediaries in debt and credit, namely banks. From this opinion, the definition of a bank can be concluded as a credit intermediary institution.

  5. F.E. Perry
  6. A bank is a business entity whose transactions are related to money, accepting deposits from customers, providing funds for every withdrawal, collecting checks on customer orders, providing credit, and/or investing the excess deposits until needed for repayment.

  7. A. Abdurracham
  8. In his book “Encyclopedia of Economics, Finance, and Trade,” it is explained that the definition of a bank is a financial institution that provides various services, such as loans, currency circulation, acting as a storage place for valuable items, and financing business operations.

    So according to A. Abdurrachman, a bank is a trading business that sells money storage and credit services with the aim of seeking reasonable profits with morality.

  9. Indonesian Institute of Accountants
  10. According to the Indonesian Institute of Accountants in 2002, a bank is an institution that acts as a financial intermediary between those who have funds and those who need funds, and an institution that facilitates payment transactions.

The Financial Services Authority (OJK) explains that banks are established to improve the standard of living of the population through all banking activities they undertake. The functions and objectives of the bank are divided into two categories: general functions and specific functions. Therefore, the bank must perform its functions and achieve its objectives properly.

General Functions of a Bank

  1. As a Fund Gatherer
  2. A bank as a fund gatherer collects funds from three sources: initial capital deposits when the bank is established, funds from the general public through banking activities, such as current deposits, fixed deposits, savings, and funds from financial institutions.

  3. Fund Distributor to the Public
  4. Funds that have been accumulated in the bank can be distributed to the public in various forms such as loans, securities, investments, and ownership of fixed assets.

  5. Monitoring Cash Flow
  6. Another task of the bank is to monitor all financial activities that occur, such as money transfers, collections, credit cards, and others. This is to prevent crimes such as money laundering.

Special Functions of a Bank

  1. Agent of Trust
  2. As an agent of trust, the bank is an institution based on trust, meaning that the public must have trust to engage in all banking operations with this institution.

    If the public already has trust in the bank, they will not worry about depositing money, withdrawing money, and other banking activities without fear or doubt.

    This trust must also be mutual, as the bank must trust the public or customers when lending money. And of course, the bank must make accurate assessments of the customer’s ability to repay the loan.

  3. Agent of Development
  4. As an agent of development, the bank’s ability to engage the public in activities such as investments, consumption, distribution, and services using money.

    The development referred to in the agent of development is the economic development of the public. Banks must contribute to the monetary sector, which also affects the real sector for the economic development of the community.

  5. Agent of Services
  6. As an agent of service, the bank offers various financial services. For example, the financial services commonly offered by banks include deposit services, lending, fund transfers, and others.

    The funds deposited by the bank are basically intended for the public. Therefore, the services provided by a bank must be related to the economic activities of the public.

Types of Banks & Examples of Banks in Indonesia

There are several types of banks that can be found in Indonesia. Here are some of them.

  1. Rural Credit Banks
  2. The first type of bank is the Rural Credit Bank (BPR), which is a bank that conducts business activities conventionally or based on Sharia principles, and does not provide payment services in its activities. The activities of BPR are much narrower compared to general banks.

    This is because BPR is prohibited from accepting deposits in the form of current accounts, foreign exchange activities, and insurance as done by general banks. The tasks of the Rural Credit Bank are:

  • Collecting funds from the public in the form of deposits such as fixed deposits, savings, and other similar forms.
  • Providing credit to the public.
  • Providing financing and fund placements based on Sharia principles, as stipulated by Bank Indonesia.
  • Placing their funds in the form of Bank Indonesia Certificates (SBI), fixed deposits, deposit certificates, and savings in other banks.

These banks are found in small towns close to communities in need. BPR can be found in the form of Village Banks, Village Granaries, Employee Banks, Market Banks, Village Money Granaries (LPN), Village Credit Institutions (BKI), and Village Credit Institutions (LPD).

In addition, BPR can also take the form of District Credit Institutions (BKK), Small Business Credit Institutions (KURK), Village Production Banks (BKPD), District Credit Institutions (LPK), and others.

All of these forms are based on Banking Law No. 7 of 1992. The purpose of BPR is to serve small communities in remote areas that have difficulty accessing general banks.

  • Central Bank
  • The central bank of a country is generally an institution responsible for monetary policy in that country. The function and role of a central bank are to maintain the stability of the currency value, banking sector stability, and overall financial system stability.

    In Indonesia, the central bank’s function is carried out by Bank Indonesia (BI). As a central bank, BI has a single goal, which is to achieve and maintain the stability of the rupiah value. This stability of the rupiah value includes two aspects: stability of the currency value against goods and services, and stability against foreign currencies.

    To achieve this goal, BI is supported by three pillars, which are its three areas of responsibility. These three areas of responsibility include setting and implementing monetary policy, regulating and ensuring the smooth operation of the payment system, and regulating and supervising banks in Indonesia. The tasks of Bank Indonesia:

    • Implementing and determining monetary policy.
    • Regulating and ensuring the smooth operation of the payment system.
    • Regulating and supervising the performance of banks.

    This is crucial to maintain the balance of a country’s financial system. An example of a central bank in Indonesia is Bank Indonesia.

  • Commercial Banks
  • Commercial banks, also known as commercial banks, conduct all business activities conventionally or based on Sharia principles, providing payment services in their activities.

    The services provided are general, meaning they can provide all banking services available. Similarly, their operational areas can be nationwide. The tasks of Commercial Banks include:

    • Collecting funds from the public in the form of deposits.
    • Channeling funds to the public in the form of loans.
    • Issuing money through credit and investment payments.
    • Offering financial services such as credit cards, travel checks, ATMs, interbank fund transfers, and others.
    • Providing facilities for international trade.
    • Serving as storage for valuable items.

    Commercial banks in Indonesia include BNI, BRI, BSI, BTN, Mandiri, CIMB Niaga, and others depending on their operational activities and ownership.

    Thus, the explanation about banks and general banking both in terms of definition, objectives, functions, and other explanations about commercial banks. Hopefully, this is beneficial.

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